July 2, 2022
Foto: (Arte g1)

Initiatives that can help Brazil reduce the impact of climate change are already a reality in the country | National newspaper

Initiatives that can help Brazil fulfill the commitments signed on Tuesday (2) in Glasgow and reduce the impact of climate change are already a reality here in the country.

Sea level rise is already happening, but it’s not like the disaster movies in Hollywood. According to the Committee on Climate Change in HIM-HER-ITThe ocean level has been rising by 1.3 mm annually over the past century. This number jumped 50 years ago, and the prediction for the next two decades is that it will reach five millimeters per year. This exacerbates alcohol residues, coastal erosion and flood risks. In a country with a coast the size of Brazil, there are reasons for concern.

“We’re paying for the audacity of many cities to build their roads, boardwalks, and buildings within what’s called a ‘dynamic beach area.’ So you’ve got into a battle with nature, and you’re going to lose,” explains UFRJ coastal engineering professor Paulo Cesar Rosman.

Paulo Rosman coordinated a study that identified the areas most vulnerable to climate change in the coastal region. The study revealed that major urban areas on our coast need to adapt to a new reality.

“The way to win this fight is to respect nature and work with nature. It is almost always possible to extend the strip of shore widening, bringing sand and making the beach above what you have today. It is the most viable and most general solution for the coast open to the sea,” he says.

There are also hazards off the coast, in lowland areas and within bays, where low-income populations live. In the Recife Unorganized occupation occurs in a vast area of ​​​​the plain, where many rivers flow, mangroves are backfilled.

“Recife is the Brazilian capital most vulnerable to sea level rise,” says Vice President of the Federal University of Pernambuco and Coordinator of Rede Clima, Moacyr Araújo. It is estimated that the sea advance threatens approximately 600,000 people in the metropolitan area.

“When we talk about sea level rise, we need to incorporate all this information into master plans and change the concept and relationship between the city and its rivers,” he says.

Another challenge associated with global warming is extreme weather events, such as what happened ten years ago in the Serrana region of Rio. More than 900 people died. One of the country’s greatest tragedies heralded a new era in the prevention of natural disasters.

“What we had before is just the weather forecast. But meteorology is only part of this problem. The problem of disasters includes, of course, rain and meteorology, but also hydrology and geology and, basically, the social part”, says Simaden coordinator, Marcelo Enrique Silucci.

The need to improve prevention justified the establishment of the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters. In a decade of existence, Simaden had already issued 20,000 alerts to over a thousand municipalities and had saved countless lives.

This is what happened last year in the metropolitan area Belo Horizonte. Five days before one of the biggest rains in history Minas GeraisSimaden sent an alert to the Civil Defense.

“They even used acoustic cars in small towns to announce that a big event was approaching. And people were ready,” says Marcelo Enrique. Despite 400 millimeters of rain, Semaden’s warning prevented an even greater tragedy.

As the new normal weather left Rio de Janeiro More likely.

“The sky is overcast, the forecast is rain. It rained all night, and the ground is soaked in water.” On such days, the operations center in Rio de Janeiro is on alert. The entire structure was assembled after one of the worst floods in the city’s history, just over ten years ago. In the control room, the goal is to gather information and technology to prevent further tragedies in times of climate change.

The great advantage of the Operations Center is to issue alerts to 1.3 million people in social networks and via SMS in a matter of seconds.

“Everyone remembers the ‘March Waters’ that closed the summer, and today, in April, we still have rain, and it starts more and more in May. Then, We have noticed that this change is happening, and we have to adapt to it‘,” says the CEO of the Rio Operations Center, Alexander Cardman.

Heavy rain with landslides or rocks has caused many deaths in Morro dos Macacos, in the northern region of Rio, especially on the top of the hill, on the slope. But since the installation of the early warning system, which warns the community in advance of an approaching storm, of heavy rain, no new deaths from these causes have been recorded. This is already ten years old.

“I think it’s important. The noise is deafening, but it’s important,” says teacher Bruna Santos.

Since the system was implemented in 104 societies, Only one death was recorded due to rain.

‘The resident asks us if everything is OK. ‘It’s working?’ “Is the siren working?” “All right?” “I heard the sirens in the house yesterday,” says Haroldo Ribeiro, of Morro dos Macacos community leader.

Embrapa study in red shows areas that have become unsuitable for growing beans in the past 30 years – Photo: Reproduction

If in cities it is necessary to adapt to heavy rains, the challenge in the countryside is to ensure production as temperatures rise. study ambraba It shows areas that have become unsuitable for growing beans in the past 30 years. Farmers are also facing increasing problems growing corn and soybean losses in the United States Rio Grande do Sul.

a The solution involves investing in science and technology. and promoting ABC, the Low Carbon Agriculture Program, which was created ten years ago.

“We will have two paths. The first path is soil and water management and conservation. This is a very important path. The second path is genetic improvement, the search for tolerant species,” explains Eduardo Asaad, researcher at Embrapa and professor at FGV Agro.

Cattle are currently the biggest cause of deforestation in AmazonBut solutions exist. One of them takes place in the Amazon itself.

in Alta Floresta, IN Matthew Grosso The company restores the soil, introduces high-quality grass and intelligently manages livestock. Special nutrients reduce up to 85% of greenhouse gas emissions from animals.

The company helps rural landowners with science and technology.

“Compared to traditional Brazilian cattle, we’re talking about cattle that lay one head per hectare and produce four or five arrubas per hectare per year. When we work on these more technical systems, we get to four or five heads per hectare and produce up to 30 aruba per hectare/year.‘,” says Fando Telles, Executive Director of Sustainable Livestock in the Amazon (PEXA).

Part of the farm profits are paid, and everyone wins.

“We believe in livestock that does not need new areas so we can increase production. No need to clear new forests. Now, we need to produce more with fewer emissions and less environmental impact,” says Laurent Micol, Director of Finance and Governance.