June 27, 2022
NASA launches Hubble's top telescope: Meet James Webb, designed to capture the universe's first galaxies |  Science

NASA launches Hubble’s top telescope: Meet James Webb, designed to capture the universe’s first galaxies | Science

a NASAThe US space agency, will launch into space, on Sunday (31st), the space telescope James Webb. will replace the file Hubble, the agency’s most famous telescope, which is31 years in orbit.

In this article, you will understand what new possibilities James Webb presents, Hubble’s main achievements and what will happen to him now – as well as other details:

  1. What is James Webb?
  2. Why is your release important?
  3. Will James Webb replace Hubble?
  4. What developments would James Webb allow on Hubble?
  5. How far will James Webb be from Earth?
  6. How long will a web assignment last?
  7. How much did James Webb cost?
  8. Will it have maintenance?

1) What is James Webb?

The James Webb Space Telescope’s 18-section mirror will capture infrared light from some of the first galaxies that formed – Image: NASA/DESIREE STOVER

James Webb is the new space telescope from NASA (JWST, James Webb Space Telescope). It’s basically a large space observatory that can see things – like stars, galaxies, and exoplanets – very far out in space. Its mass is 6.5 tons.

The complete model of the James Webb Space Telescope in Austin. Photo: Chris Gunn/NASA

2) Why is it important for you to be released?

Because it would allow astronomers to literally see things in the universe that they couldn’t see before – Like the first galaxies in which she was raised. (See details in question 4).

Astronomer Thiago Signorini Gonçalves, of the Valongo Observatory of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, explains (UFRJ).

In NASA’s own words, the telescope will”It fundamentally changes our understanding of the universe“.

The agency described James Webb’s launch as an “Apollo moment” – a reference to Apollo missions to explore the moon, who led the first man to trample on Takes in 1969.

Diagrams of the James Webb Space Telescope – Image: NASA

3) Will James Webb replace Hubble?

No. will complementary Hubble, explains Thiago.

“It’s a telescope that certainly does not replace Hubble – Hubble is still important. We are grateful that Hubble is still around, because there is so much we can only see with Hubble. But James Webb has so many characteristics that I would say it will be able to complement what Hubble has already done it and is still doing it.”

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has been dedicated to space imaging since its launch on April 24, 1990 – Image: NASA

4) What developments will James Webb allow on Hubble?

many. The first is that it is Larger than the Hubble telescope, so it can capture more light and see farther. The primary mirror has a diameter of 6.5 meters (about three times larger than the Hubble mirror).

Another is that James Webb can only see in infrared. This type of radiation is not visible to the Hubble telescope.

“This has some advantages: the dangers of dust around stars where planets emit infrared radiation – so it’s better to monitor with this kind of radiation,” explains Thiago.

“Similarly, the galaxies, farthest away—because of universe expansion – become redder. When we look at galaxies in the distant universe, it’s helpful to look at infrared radiation.”

Since infrared light has a longer wavelength than others, James Webb will be able to look further back in time – and see the first galaxies that formed in the early universe.

It’s like looking into the past.

“the furthest [está a galáxia], more in the past. It’s a kind of crazy relativistic effect, but you can think of it like this: When we see something very far away, we see something that happened a long time ago – billions of years ago – And it took a long time for the light to get here,” the astronomer explains.

The JWST is not the first NASA telescope that can see in infrared: the Spitzer, who retired in January of last year, was also able to do so. But James Webb’s primary mirror is about 60 times larger in area – making him see farther.

(And Hubble hasn’t lost it all: It can see normal visible light and ultraviolet radiation, which James Webb cannot.)

5) How far will James Webb be from Earth?

a 1.5 million km – At a point called Lagrange Terra-Sol L2.

  • a Tera 150 million km away from Sol.
  • a Takes orbit a Tera At a distance of about 384.5 thousand km.
  • or Hubble spins Tera At an altitude of about 570 km above it.

This complete distance from the web is necessary for two main reasons:

Webb will mainly notice infrared light from very faint and far away objects. Infrared is thermal radiation, so all hot objects, including telescopes, emit infrared light. To avoid overloading extremely weak astronomical signals with radiation from a telescope, the telescope and its instruments must be extremely cold.. The operating temperature of the web is -223 ° C.

Lagrange L2 is a quasi-stable point in the gravitational potential around the Sun and the Earth. Point L2 is outside the Earth’s orbit as it revolves around the Sun, keeping all three in a line at all times. The combined gravitational forces of the Sun and Earth can “carry” a spacecraft at this point, and Relatively little fuel is needed to keep it close to L2.

6) How long will a web assignment last?

At least 5½ years after launch (it will take 6 months for it to reach its destination and start sending images back to Earth).

The goal is for the telescope to have a useful life of more than 10 years. This service life is limited by the amount of fuel used to maintain orbit and the proper in-orbit operation of the spacecraft and instruments.

7) How much did James Webb cost?

10 billion US dollars (about 56.2 billion Brazilian reais).

8) Will it have maintenance?

No. Because you are so far from Earth, It is useless to repair Webb if there is any defectAnd As it happened with Hubble. NASA says the potential benefits of the repair will not outweigh the increases in mission complexity, mass, and cost.