June 12, 2024

Usage of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines in Older Adults – Shiv Telegram Media

3 min read
Usage of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines in Older Adults – Shiv Telegram Media

Title: GSK and Pfizer Vaccines Demonstrate Promising Efficacy in Preventing RSV-Associated Illnesses

In a recent development, two vaccine candidates, one manufactured by GSK and the other by Pfizer, have shown promising results in preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated illnesses, particularly in older adults. Although the ongoing clinical trials were not designed to evaluate efficacy against severe RSV illnesses or death, the findings provide encouraging evidence for the potential effectiveness of these vaccines.

The GSK vaccine underwent an extensive clinical trial conducted in 17 countries, involving 24,973 participants aged 60 years and above. Randomized participants were administered either the vaccine or a saline placebo. The analysis focused on two RSV seasons, with each participant being followed up for an average of 15 months. The research revealed that one dose of the GSK vaccine provided an efficacy rate of 82.6% during the first season and 56.1% during the second season in preventing symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD). Overall, the vaccine exhibited a 74.5% efficacy rate in preventing RSV-associated LRTD over two seasons. Additionally, it showcased an efficacy rate of 77.5% in preventing medically attended RSV-associated LRTD.

Similarly, the Pfizer vaccine demonstrated substantial efficacy in a clinical trial involving 36,862 participants aged 60 years and above, conducted across seven countries. The participants were also randomized to receive either the vaccine or a placebo. The analysis covered a full RSV season and a partial second season. In the first season, one dose of the Pfizer vaccine exhibited an 88.9% efficacy rate in preventing symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed RSV-associated LRTD, which slightly decreased to 78.6% during the second season. Overall, the vaccine showcased an 84.4% efficacy rate in preventing RSV-associated LRTD over two seasons. Additionally, it demonstrated an efficacy rate of 81.0% in preventing medically attended RSV-associated LRTD.

Both vaccines displayed safety profiles based on extensive clinical trials, including an ongoing phase 3 trial and a prior phase 1/2 trial. In the case of the GSK vaccine, severe reactogenicity events were observed in 3.8% of participants in the intervention group compared to 0.9% in the control group. However, there were no significant differences in serious adverse events (SAEs) between the groups. Notably, a higher number of participants in the intervention group reported atrial fibrillation as an unsolicited event. Additionally, three participants reported inflammatory neurologic events within 42 days of receiving the vaccine.

On the other hand, the Pfizer vaccine demonstrated milder reactogenicity events, reported in 1.0% of participants in the intervention group compared to 0.7% in the control group. Similar to the GSK vaccine, SAEs were similar between the groups. A higher number of participants in the intervention group reported atrial fibrillation as an unsolicited event. Additionally, three participants experienced inflammatory neurologic events, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome, within 42 days of receiving the vaccine.

While these findings indicate promising efficacy for both the GSK and Pfizer vaccines in preventing RSV-associated illnesses in older adults, further research is required to gauge their effectiveness against severe RSV illnesses, hospitalizations, respiratory support, and mortality rates. Nonetheless, these vaccines offer hope in the battle against RSV, providing potential relief and protection for vulnerable populations.

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