June 25, 2024

A specialist warns of the risks of skin cancer this summer and how to prevent the disease

5 min read
Crédito: Freepik

NS the summer This month begins, accompanied by vacationTravel and lots of sun exposure. At this time, in addition to continuing to followsubordinate Covid-19 prevention protocolsIt is necessary to pay attention to skin care, because the sun – in excess and without protection – is the main causative factor of skin cancer.

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Add more protection factor to a file the summerIt is the slogan of the current campaign of December orangeOrganized by the Brazilian Society of Dermatology (SBD). Alert is to make the entire population aware of the impact of the disease which, according to the institution, It represents 33% of all diagnoses of cancer In Brazil, with about 185,000 new cases registered annually at the National Cancer Institute (INCA).

Carlos Dzek, Medical Director of Oncology at Nove de Golho Hospital explains that the disease is present Tumors Malignant tumors that appear on the skin as blemishes, lumps or flat changes of different colors – may show the presence of ulcers because they do not heal easily and recur often.

We classify tumors into skin cancer NS Non-melanoma. Non-melanomas are the most common, and are classified between basal cell carcinomas (80%) and squamous cell carcinomas (20%). Then we have skin cancer, which is less common compared to the other two, but no less important because it has a greater chance of spreading and the deathAnd its treatment can be more complex,” the doctor explains.

The areas most affected by non-melanoma are the areas of skin that are most exposed to sunlight, such as the face. On the other hand, melanoma can develop anywhere on the surface of the skin, especially on the face and trunk.

According to Dzik, non-melanoma skin cancer does not spread to other areas. In its most severe form, the condition manifests itself only with increased local growth. Melanoma, in turn, when the tumor is thick and deep, can spread to the satellite lymph nodes or even internal organs.

risk factors

In isolation, summer is no villain. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the result of excessive exposure to sunlight throughout life and tends to appear in middle to advanced age, above 45-50 years, according to the medical director. “This season, the warning of severe injuries to sun exposure such as sunstroke‘, she says.

NS INCA It is noteworthy that the risk of contracting the disease increases in cases of:

• Prolonged and repeated exposure to the sun (UV rays), especially in childhood and adolescence.

• exposure to cameras from Leather tanning;

• Those with light skin, eyes, red or blond hair, or albino.

• You have a family or personal history of skin cancer.

Although it does not appear in the list, black people They are also prone to developing skin cancer. Dzik notes that melanoma is 20 times lower in black skin than in white. However, when this happens, the disease appears more severe and severe.

“What distinguishes blacks is the occurrence of a more severe type of skin cancer – melanoma of the extremities or… acral . melanoma. These conditions provide a greater chance of not responding to treatment and an increased risk of death,” he explains.

symptoms

Self-knowledge of the body is essential to recognizing the signs illness, which causes changes in the skin mostly similar to abbreviation, eczema or other benign lesions. According to the SBD, symptoms may include:

• a raised, shiny, translucent, reddish, brown, pink, or multicolored skin lesion with a central crust that bleeds easily;

• a black or brown spot that changes color and texture, becomes irregular around the edges and grows in size;

• A spot or a non-healing sore that keeps growing with itching, scabs, blistering, or bleeding.

In addition to all of these signs and symptoms, other metastatic melanomas can also appear, which vary depending on the area in which the cancer developed. This can include skin nodules, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath or coughing, agonizing pain and headache, for example,” SBD highlights.

It is essential to consult a doctor when noticing any of these factors. Only a specialist will be able to diagnose the disease from Clinical exams or A biopsy. In addition, regardless of the signs, the annual consultation with a Dermatologist It should be included in the list of health priorities.

Treatments

“The vast majority of skin tumors, both melanoma and non-melanoma, can be treated with minimally invasive excision. Occasionally, it is necessary for a surgeon to perform an extended surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes, especially in the case of thicker and deeper melanomas,” says Dzek. . However, according to the specialist, treatment is not synonymous with immunogens, since the same factors that tend to the first diagnosis prevail.

Every type of cancer should be treated as quickly as possible, regardless of its stage. In the case of non-melanoma skin cancer, there are several treatment options for treatment or treatmentWhich varies according to the type of disease and the extent of its spread. SBD highlights the most common ones: excisional surgery, curettage and electrodissection, cryosurgery, laser surgery, Mohs microsurgery, photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy, ChemotherapyImmunotherapy and oral medications.

SBD notes that skin cancer treatment varies with the extent, aggressiveness, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient’s age and general health. The most common treatments are: excisional surgery and Mohs surgery.

protection

Fortunately this is possible Preventing skin cancer. The best strategy for this is to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and to use a high-protection sunscreen every day – even at home and on colder days. Moreover, accessories like hats and sunglasses are also a good ally.

Check out the other SBD protection tips listed below:

• Avoid exposure to the sun and stay in the shade between 10 am and 4 pm (summer time);

• Use cotton or canvas tents that absorb 50% of UV rays on the beach or in the pool.

• Use a product that protects against UVA and UVB rays and has a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30. Reapply every two hours or less, or after getting wet, for outdoor recreational activities. When using the product on a daily basis, apply a good amount in the morning and reapply before going out for lunch;

• Monitor your skin regularly, looking for spots or suspicious spots;

• Keep children and infants away from sunlight. Sunscreens can be used from six months onwards;

• See a dermatologist at least once a year for a comprehensive examination.


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