June 14, 2024

Cell cycle: stages, relationship with cancer and summary

3 min read
Cell cycle: stages, relationship with cancer and summary

cell cycle is Omar prison cell It corresponds to the period from its formation through parental cell division to its history section Which led to the emergence of two daughter cells. Interphase and mitosis are stages of the cell cycle. During interphase, the cell has significant metabolic activity and increases in size. In mitosis, the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Read more: Cell respiration – one of the processes a cell performs to generate energy for its activities

cell cycle summary

  • The cell cycle corresponds to the period between the appearance of the cell after cell division and the moment of its division.

  • The cell cycle consists of two phases: the interphase and the mitotic phase.

  • Interphase is characterized by cell growth and duplication chromosomes.

  • The mitotic stage is the moment when a cell divides into two daughter cells.

  • Mitosis can be divided educationally into five phases: prophase, prophase, prophase, prophase, and distal prophase.

  • NS cytoplasm The cell divides in a process called cytokinesis.

Cell cycle video lesson

Phases of the cell cycle

The cell cycle consists of two phases: interphase and mitosis. Let’s get to know each of these stages in more detail below:

To communicate The period between two cell divisions. It corresponds to about 90% of the cell cycle and can be divided into NS1, S e G2. During all these three steps, cell size increases with production of protein Based on Cytoplasmic organelles. Chromosomes are duplicated during the so-called S phase.

In a simplified way, we can say that, in phase G1, the cell begins to increase in size, enters the S phase, during which its chromosomes have doubled and its growth is still noticeable, and continues to grow through the G phase.2, in which preparations for cell division are completed. Some cells in G1 Delays cell cycle progression by entering a rest period called G0 (g zero). Neurons and skeletal muscle cells, for example, remain in G0 While the organism is alive.

Segmentation diagram.
Look at the diagram closely to better understand each step of the division.

a equidistant It begins after the interphase, and is called the M phase of the cell cycle. It can be divided educationally into five stages: Test phase, prophase, prophase, prophase, telophase. During the last stages of mitosis, the process is called Appears, which enhances the cytoplasmic separation of cells. Let’s learn more about the split steps below:

  • Test stage: It is the first stage of cleavage. During this step, we notice the condensation of chromosomes, the nucleus disappears, and the formation of the so-called mitotic spindle begins, which consists of the centrosome (the organizing center of microtubules where a pair of centrioles are located) and through the microtubules (protein structures) emerging from it. During prophase, the spindle grows, causing centrosomes to separate.

  • Prepare: At this stage the cover nuclear It fragments and chromosomes continue to condense. Some microtubules are associated with kinetochores (a protein structure that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle) and others interact with other microtubules from the opposite pole. Microtubules that attach to kinetochores are called kinetochore microtubules.

  • metaphase: Chromosomes assemble in the equatorial region of the cell and reach maximum condensation. Centrosomes are arranged at opposite poles of the cell.

  • Develop: It is the shortest stage of cleavage. In it, the sister chromatids are separated, and the released daughter chromosomes move towards the poles of the cell. At the end of this step, we can see that the cell has complete sets of chromosomes at each end.

  • Tel√≥fase: It is the final stage of mitosis, and the cell is seen to begin to re-establish its normal structure. In the telophase, the appearance of the nuclear envelopes is checked again, as well as the nucleus. The chromosomes begin to condense.

Read also: Differences between mitosis and meiosis

Cell cycle and cancer

Cells contain a cell cycle control systemAnd This ensures that the time and rate of cell division occurs correctly. While some human cells divide frequently, such as epithelial cells, other cells do not divide in a mature human, such as muscle cells.

This is necessary for the proper functioning of the body. in a cancer cells, however, do not properly comply with the signals that regulate the cell cycle. They have uncontrolled cell division, which leads to the formation of tumors.

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