June 26, 2022
How are the environmental promises made by the world's biggest polluters?  |  environment

How are the environmental promises made by the world’s biggest polluters? | environment

The ninth edition of the Summit of the Americas – which runs until Friday (10/6) in Los Angeles, at United States of America Focuses, in the words of the US government, on “building a sustainable, resilient and equitable future.”

The expectation is that he will be the Democratic president Joe Biden Propose joint statements to your peers – such as President Jair Bolsonaro – with policies and plans for environmental conservation and climate change.

The Summit of the Americas coincides with the Climate Change Conference in Bonn Germanywhich will discuss until June 16 the progress made since the signing of the climate agreement in COP26in November of last year, in Glasgow, Scotland.

On this occasion, world leaders committed to new goals to reduce their emissions, reduce the use of fossil fuels and end deforestation.

Do they keep their promises?

Emissions: a possible drop this year

In Glasgow, countries agreed to develop more ambitious climate plans, including reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that causes climate change. Emission reductions are needed to help keep temperature increases within 1.5°C. Moreover, it could cause a “climate disaster,” according to scientists at United nations.

Countries have been given until September to submit new plans – but currently only 11 out of 196 have done so.

However, recent analyzes indicate that China Showed a steady decline in emissions since summer 2021. This could have a significant impact as the country is responsible for 27% of the world’s emissions.

What is the COP and Climate Change Conference in Bonn?

  • Every year, the world’s governments meet at a climate summit called the Conference of the Parties (COP);
  • Twenty-sixth editionCOP26) in Glasgow last year; The COP27 It will be in Sharm El Sheikh in Egyptin this year;
  • The Climate Change Conference in Bonn takes place halfway between the two Conferences of the Parties – to check on progress.

Fossil fuels: the energy crisis threatens progress

The COP26 included a plan for Reduce the use of charcoal – Responsible for 40% of annual carbon dioxide emissions.

World leaders also agreed to reduce “ineffective” oil and gas subsidies. This is government financial aid that artificially reduces the price of fossil fuels.

World leaders also agreed to reduce “ineffective” oil and gas subsidies – government financial aid that artificially lowers the price of fossil fuels.

Climate Science Authority United nationsHey IPCCFossil fuels are responsible for 64% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions, he says.

There are now 34 countries considering new coal-fired plants, compared to 41 at the beginning of last year.

The ChinaThe largest consumer of coal has agreed to stop funding “all overseas coal-fired power projects entirely”.

However, the India – The second largest consumer of coal – announced in April that it is ramping up coal-fired power production and reopening 100 plants.

Fossil fuel subsidies will also increase in 2021, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). But Sabrina Muller, a policy analyst at the University of London School of Economics, in United kingdomThis is believed to be a short-term measure to move away from Russian gas.

Deforestation: Brazil holds back global progress

Deforested Amazon in Juara (MT) – Photo: Disclosure

More than 100 countries – which have about 85% of the world’s forests – have pledged to end deforestation by 2030.

This measure is seen as vital, as trees absorb about 10% of the carbon dioxide emitted each year.

Half of the world’s forests are in only five countries. RussiaBrazil, CanadaAnd the United State And the China So your actions can make a big difference.

In April, the President of the United States Joe Bidenan executive order to protect ancient forests on government land.

But in Brazil – which has more than half amazon rainforest Deforestation increased by 69% compared to last year.

Frances Seymour of the World Resources Institute (WRI) research group said this was not surprising “in light of the relaxation of environmental stewardship” by the Brazilian government.

The other challenge lies in Russiawhich is experiencing major wildfire season – and lost 6.5 million hectares of forest last year.

Climate action: extra money, but more is needed

Climate action: extra money, but more is needed – Image: BBC

The richest nations have agreed to provide $100 billion annually to developing nations for climate action by the end of 2022 – a promise that has yet to be fulfilled in 2020.

Developing countries need money to bypass fossil fuels by doing things like investing in green technologies. They also need to prepare for the worst effects of climate change.

despite of European UnionThe United States of America, Canada and Australia After increasing funding pledges, WRI says they need to ramp up spending because of their relative wealth and past issues.

a United kingdomFrance , Germany it’s the Japan compatible or offer too much.

methane – the situation has worsened

A program to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030 has been agreed upon by more than 100 countries.

big emitters – ChinaAnd the Russia And India – not yet joined, although China They reached an agreement with the United States to work on the issue.

Methane is currently responsible for a third of the global warming caused by humans.

Last year, methane levels showed their biggest annual increase since records began, according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Agriculture and the energy sector are the main sources of methane – and the reason may be in part because of the increased use of oil and gas due to the relaxation of measures against Covid.