Rio de Janeiro has 86% of tuberculosis cases concentrated in 16 of the 92 municipalities in the state. The data is from the state health department (SES), which releases brochures and reports on the disease on Friday (24), World Tuberculosis Day.
Data shows that there were 16,099 TB cases and 867 deaths reported in the state in 2021.
- Tuberculosis: what is it, what are the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Most of the municipalities of particular interest from the Department of Tuberculosis of the State of Rio de Janeiro, of the SES, are located in the metropolitan area. are they:
In addition to the 16 cities where most of the cases are concentrated, cities itaperonaAnd Resende that it Round and roundBecause they have prison units.
Rio de Janeiro has the State Tuberculosis Control Plan (2021-2025) in place for control measures in an effort to reduce cases. The state authority understands that the death and infection rates are high and the fight against the disease places Rio as one of the priority areas in the national hostilities.
Among the measures is the transfer and training of health teams. The control measures envisaged in the plan are part of a cooperation term signed between the Government of Rio de Janeiro, the Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which allocates R$196 million for its application in disease control. over the next five years. These resources have been allocated by the Rio de Janeiro State Legislative Assembly (ALERG).
According to the state health ministry, R$56 million was passed last year. Of these, R$30 million has been used to implement food safety programs for patients undergoing treatment.
World Tuberculosis Day is held with the aim of raising awareness of the disease and its consequences not only for the health of those infected, but also for society and the economy.
These actions occurred on the day Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, in 1882, paving the way for studies that could lead to a cure.
Tuberculosis is an infectious and contagious disease caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as Koch’s bacillus. The disease primarily affects the lungs, although it can affect other organs and systems. Transmission occurs via the respiratory tract, through the elimination of droplets generated by the cough, speech or sneezing of a person with active TB, without treatment; and inhalation of the aerosol by a sensitive individual.
With the onset of treatment, transmission tends to decrease gradually. Generally, after 15 days, the risk of disease transmission decreases significantly. TB is not transmitted through shared objects. The disease is curable and treatment lasts an average of six months and should be carried out until the end even with the disappearance of symptoms.
Pay attention when coughing. It is the main symptom of tuberculosis, whether it is dry or accompanied by sputum. If a person has a cough that has lasted for three weeks or longer, you need to investigate. Other symptoms are:
- evening fever
- night sweats;
- Fatigue and tiredness.
How is the diagnosis made?
Before the tests, a clinical diagnosis is performed, which evaluates whether the patient has had a cough for more than three weeks, fever, and weight loss, among other symptoms.
The other two ways are:
- Chest and lung X-rays
- By bacteriological testing, such as a bacilli speculum, a rapid molecular test for tuberculosis, or a microbial culture
Vaccine and prevention
The main method of preventing tuberculosis in children is the BCG vaccine. It should be given at birth or, at most, up to 4 years, 11 months, and 29 days. The goal is to prevent severe forms of the disease. It does not have a booster dose.
Other forms of prevention: Always wash your hands and keep environments well ventilated, ventilated, and in sunlight.
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